Ordinary carbon is found in the carbon dioxide in the air, which is taken up by plants, which in turn are eaten by animals. So a bone, or a leaf or a tree, or even a piece of wooden furniture, contains carbon. When the 14C has been formed, like ordinary carbon , it combines with oxygen to give carbon dioxide , and so it also gets cycled through the cells of plants and animals. A handful of studies in this review explicitly tackle the problem of leakage in California, the EU and in RGGI.
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Although there has been considerable discussion, researchers began to pay attention to the nature of PhytOC in the early stage of phytolith carbon dating research in the 1960s. Infrared spectral data of phytoliths suggested that PhytOC is composed of a variety of cell-derived substances, such as humic acid, amino acids, and amines (Wilding et al., 1967). The significantly depleted δ13C in phytoliths relative to that in the host plant tissue indicated that PhytOC might include lipids and lignin, which might have a depleted carbon isotope (Kelly et al., 1991). Smith and Anderson also found lipids in phytoliths, but no lignin. Masion et al. detected several carbohydrate components in phytoliths, such as sugars, adenosine triphosphate, and sodium pyrogluconate, using a new technique of dynamic nuclear polarization nuclear magnetic resonance.
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If the investigator distinguished separate littermass layers the data were recorded separately into L and F+H categories. If these layers were not distinguished the littermass data were entered as Total category for each plant tissue category . Investigators exclusively used literature sources reporting primary measurements of litterfall and littermass. The litter database was developed from about 685 original documents. Data was extracted from published and unpublished documents in the categories of journal articles, books, edited books, technical reports, and theses with publication dates ranging from 1867 to 1997.
Some studies have found that these coatings in the simulators of the hip and knee joints reduce to a minimum the wear, corrosion and release of metal ions from the metal base of implants. In this case, DLC coatings show a wide range of changes in the structure and properties of coatings, depending on the conditions of their application, which determines the ratio of atomic diamond sp3- and graphite sp2-bonds. One of the ways to solve this problem is to improve the technologies of their application on the basis and reduce the compressive stress in the synthesized coatings. Finally, studies on forest insurance are generally of a punctual nature, both spatially and temporally. Most of them are based on very specific case studies (one region or country, one tree species, one risk, etc.) questioning the generalization of the results. However, the current context is at a different level; it is now necessary to think in terms of a broader spatial dimension or even international coverage.
Replicate measurements obtained from a series of plots or litterfall traps at a single site were averaged when the plots were established to characterize spatial variability within a relatively uniform cover type. Measurements obtained in consecutive years at a single site were averaged when these measurements were designed to capture interannual variability of a relatively uniform cover type. The averages were recorded in the database. If several measurements were made during the year to account for seasonal variation then we summed litterfall measurements and reported an annual total and average litter pool measures and reported an annual average. In most cases only a single measurement period is reported. In the case of litterfall this is most often at the beginning of the dormant period when most, but not all, the litterfall occurs.
Green supply chain management
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The special issue is intended to enhance a more nuanced understanding of carbon accounting and promote the profile and reputation of the prestigious journal, British Accounting Review in the burgeoning area of carbon accounting and assurance. There are various other radiometric dating methods used today to give ages of millions or billions of years for rocks. These techniques, unlike carbon dating, mostly use the relative concentrations of parent and daughter products in radioactive decay chains. For example, potassium-40 decays to argon-40; uranium-238 decays to lead-206 via other elements like radium; uranium-235 decays to lead-207; rubidium-87 decays to strontium-87; etc. These techniques are applied to igneous rocks, and are normally seen as giving the time since solidification.
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The size of the circle is proportional to the number of occurrences of the author’s name. The names are linked together if they appear at least one time in the same publication, and the thickness of the link between names is proportional to their number of co-occurrences. The colors allow us to identify clusters of authors. We created Figure 2 with VOSviewer, an open-access software tool developed to construct and visualize bibliometric networks .
Editors select a small number of articles recently published in the journal that they believe will be particularly interesting to readers, or important in the respective research area. The aim is to provide a snapshot of some of the most exciting work published in the various research areas of the journal. This data collection started with a sabbatical visit in 1987 by W.M. Post to Dr. Paul Zinke’s laboratory at the University of California, Berkeley.